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Current Concepts in the Arthroscopic Management of Femoroacetabular Impingement

Published in N°17 - May / June 2022
Article viewed 92 times

Current Concepts in the Arthroscopic Management of Femoroacetabular Impingement

By Ryan Mc Williams (1), Karadi Hari Sunil Kumar (2), Vikas Khanduja (2) in category UPDATE
(1) Medical Student, Leicester University Medical School, Leicester, United Kingdom - (2) Young Adult Hip Service, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Addenbrooke’s - Cambridge University Hospital, Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom / [email protected]

Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) is a condition characterized by abnormal contact of the femoral head and/or neck with the acetabular rim in the physiological range of motion of the hip, which occurs due to an abnormal hip morphology.

Introduction

Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) is a condition characterized by abnormal contact of the femoral head and/or neck with the acetabular rim in the physiological range of motion of the hip, which occurs due to an abnormal hip morphology [1]. Though the exact cause remains unclear one theory suggests that bony overgrowth seen in FAI have been noted in young athletes with a developing skeletal system, who subject their proximal femoral epiphysis to excessively high loading forces and repetitive microtrauma [2]. There is a suggestion that the cam deformity develops during adolescence in the majority of athletes [3]. Genetic causes of FAI are yet to be identified and there is no conclusive evidence to confirm any correlation [4].

Abnormal hip morphology in FAI can be defined as cam, pincer or mixed type impingement. Cam impingement refers to the formation of a bony prominence or thickening at the anterolateral junction of the head and neck of the femur, which leads to an aspherical femoral head. This discrepancy between the femoral head and acetabulum leads to a conflict which increases the stresses being placed at the chondro-labral junction during flexion and internal rotation. These stresses eventually lead to a labral tear with the articular cartilage being...

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