N°014 - November / December 2021
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Mixed reality, artificial intelligence and augmented surgeons
By Thomas GRéGORY1,2,3,4, Pierre-Etienne WUNENBURGER1,2, Benjamin DUFOURNIER1, Abdallah BOUKHENTICHE1, Charles DACHEUX1,2 in category TECHNOLOGY
1. Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatological Surgery, Avicenne Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris - Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France 2. MOVEO Institute, La Maison des Sciences Numériques, University Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, France 3. Team Vision, Integrative Neuroscience and Cognition Center (INCC), UMR CNRS 8002, UFR Biomédicale des Saints Pères, Université Paris Descartes 4. Visiting Research Associate; Department of Mechanical Engineering and of Musculoskeletal Surgery, Imperial College, South Kensington Campus, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
Computers offer the promise of being able to standardise surgical procedures and allow the surgeon, with the help of a machine, to become even more accurate. Thanks to computer-assisted surgery, the era of the “artist-surgeon”, where outcomes depended primarily on the operator’s skills, has given way to the era of the “digital surgeon”, also known as an “augmented surgeon” whose propensity for “human” error is eradicated thanks to the guidance offered by the machine. A particularly disturbing article in the British Medical Journal states that medical error is the third leading cause of death in the US.1 The stakes are therefore huge. Nevertheless, there is no denying the fact that the vast majority of surgeons have yet to incorporate digital technologies, borne from advances in 3D imaging and the rapid expansion of computer science, and which have been used in orthopaedic surgery for over 20 years, into their daily practice.
This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these technologies, including navigation, 3D printing and robotics. It offers a personal opinion of the future of these technologies and the future of orthopaedic surgery, following the arrival of a newcomer on the digital technology scene: Mixed Reality.
1. Impression 3D
3D printing is a...
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